NAPTE 2010 - National Association of Television Program Executives
How Operation Cyanide Nearly Started WWIII
© Iona Miller & Charles W. Stone, Cryptoporticus Productions
"…if Israel produces the atomic bomb then I believe that the only answer to such action would be preventive war. The Arab states will have to take immediate action and liquidate everything that would enable Israel to produce the atomic bomb." --interview with President Nasser, Feb. 20, 1966, Iraqi Newmen
Opening scene: The spymaster liked his mistresses as “modern” as he wanted to make his country. In the “swingin’ 60s” apartment of his favorite lover, a very tense Salah Nasr is half dressed, heatedly talking on the phone with his Soviet counterparts. Hurling his shoe through a closed window, he vehemently punctuates
Cut to a “Guppy” submarine in international waters off the
Cut to a clandestine meeting in the dark labyrinths of
It actually happened, at least something like that. Nasser challenged Israel to fight almost daily. Officially, the US took a neutral stance. The Soviets sent massive amounts of arms to the Arabs on the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian fronts. The US sent their spy ships because the Cold War was heating up. The week before saw the release of The Beatles "Sgt. Pepper" album, dubbed the soundtrack of the "Summer of Love."
The Six Day War marked an important turning point in Israeli culture, the Israeli people came of age. Cultural activity blossomed, including rock music. Economic growth went from 1 percent per annum before the war to 13 percent the following year. The Israeli music scene opened up to the rest of the world. Rock music, which prior to the war had almost no audience and was almost never played on the state radio, started drawing audiences.
Popular bands in the first wave of Israeli rock were The Lions, The Churchills, The Fat and the Thins, The Styles, The Electric Stage, The Seventh Radiance, The Goldstars, The Sing-Sing, The Blue Stars and The Spiders. In the euphoria that followed the Six-Day War, the performing groups of the Israel Defense Forces rose in status, with a steady stream of songs about victory, bereavement and loss. Rock was part of the alternative music scene, played in clubs such as Hakarish and Calypso, formerly know as drug dens.
Assimilated Jewish college students in search of spiritual inspiration flocked to Israel. and so did many young gentiles and "Hippies," who rejected the materialistic emphasis of modern western culture. "Make Love, Not War" took on acute meaning in the Six Day War. They say if you remember 1967, you weren't there. But the crew and families of the USS Liberty cannot forget. And the USS Trutta was no "Yellow Submarine" but rigged for serious covert surveillance. Monitoring Soviet signals was central to USS Liberty's mission. They were sending "technical reports" of intercepted Soviet signals the day of the attack.
At least three Soviet ships were "in the area" of the USS Liberty immediately after the attack. The Nikolai Podvoysky is identified by shipyard records as a tanker -- whose presence in the area could only be to refuel warships. There is a Soviet angle of the Liberty's mission or of the circumstances around the attack. Unless the Nikolai Podvoysky was mistakenly identified as a trawler, which in turn was assumed to be an intelligence-gathering ship -- both of which are also mentioned as approaching or following the Liberty -- one or two more Soviet ships were also present.
Soviet presence in the Mediterranean was not new and certainly not random. May 15, 1967 Egyptian forces entered the Sinai, in violation of the agreement signed in 1957, in the wake of the Sinai War. In addition, Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships and ordered UN forces to withdraw from their positions along the border.
Moscow, humbled by the losses of the April air battle, had already goaded its Egyptian ally into greater hostility towards Israel as a way of easing the pressure on Damascus. Soviet officials conjured up imaginary Israeli troop concentrations on Syria's borders, prompting Colonel Nasser to mass his own armies at the Egyptian-Israeli frontline in Sinai. But he even exceeded his mandate from the Soviets when he dismissed the UN’s truce-monitoring force in the Sinai Peninsula and mounted a blockade of the Red Sea’s Straits of Tiran, denying shipping access to the Israeli port of Eilat.
According to Israel's declared national security policy- Egypt's provocative action called justification for an act of war (casus beli). But by June 1967, the Israelis found themselves increasingly surrounded by superior Soviet-backed forces of the Arab and Islamic world, all of whose leaders were vowing to "throw the Jews into the sea," and the Israelis were considering a first strike, before it was too late. But the Soviets had already orchestrated a strategic plan of their own.
Soviet leadership commissioned intelligence estimates of the war's outcome well before the overt outbreak of the crisis. Col. Syromyatnikov claims that he was an exceptional Cassandra in a chorus of politically slanted sanguine prognoses, due to his intimate acquaintance with the Arab military trainees in the USSR. "My knowledge of this contingent... convinced me of the heresy that in the expected war, Israel would win. I also reflected this in a memorandum that was submitted to the KGB directorate for military counterintelligence."
However, for opposite reasons from the optimistic consensus, he concurred in the recommendation that Soviet forces should intervene directly: "I consequently noted that if the USSR desired a victory for Egypt, Syria and Jordan, it had to send pilots and tank crews, and mainly to assume the management of these armies."
He claims that several of his colleagues, who did not submit such assessments in writing, did dare to voice similar opinions at a meeting that was convened at the General Staff, because the "big boss" had been "ill for several months" and did not attend. No date is given for this meeting, but assuming that the big boss in question was Defense Minister Rodion Malinovsky, this puts the meeting, and thus this stage of planning for the "expected war," no later than the latter's death, after prolonged illness, on March 31--that is, even before the Syrian-Israeli clash on April 7 that is widely held to have precipitated the larger crisis.
A retired Soviet air force lieutenant named Yuri V. Nastenko confirmed years later, that bomber and fighter jets, such as the MiG-21s under his command were already on highest operational alert on the evening of June 5, 1967, in expectant preparation for "real combat." Another Russian officer, Yuri N. Khripunkov, a former Soviet naval commander who was serving on one of 30 Soviet warships that had been moved from the Black Sea southward to the Mediterranean in June 1967, also reported being on stand-by for action against Israeli targets.
With Israel's alleged nuclear activities becoming a hot topic in Cairo and Moscow, the Soviet Navy had already deployed some of its nuclear submarines to the Mediterranean in early 1967. One of its captains had received top secret sealed orders to prepare for action, apparently firing missiles at the Israeli shoreline, when ordered directly by the Kremlin. More vessels followed shortly as Moscow offered Cairo a "nuclear umbrella" to safeguard Egypt against an Israeli nuclear weapons capability.
Marshal Andrei Antonovich Grechko, the Soviet deputy defense minister, actually had told his Egyptian counterparts in Cairo that the Kremlin had dispatched "destroyers and submarines to the waters near Egypt, some armed with missiles and secret weapons" to help wipe out the Zionists. Thus by the end of May 1967, Soviet amphibious forces were placed on readiness for action aboard of vessels "visiting" Port Said and an air component was placed on alert in the Ukraine, with a small staff group already forward deployed in Egypt.
An Egyptian plan to attack Israel codenamed Operation Fajr (Dawn) was set to start effectively at dawn for May 27, 1967. Another plan, which was already shaped jointly in November 1966, by Soviet Marshal Andrei Gretchko and Egyptian Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer, was named "Conqueror" and modeled on clear Soviet strategic concepts.
A detailed report of the joint-Egyptian-Soviet plan was captured later by the IDF on the Golan Heights from Syrian sources, including Russian language documents. However, for reasons of political constraints, directed by highest authority at the time, these were kept top secret and were only released in part many years later. Indeed, Israel's political cover-up succeeded so well that Kremlin's proven responsibility for the Six-Day War had actually been withheld from the histories of the 1967 conflict until close to its frostiest anniversary!
The story of Moscow's active involvement in the Six Day War and its immediate aftermath, the so-called War of Attrition (June 1968- August 1970) reads like a perfect mystery thriller. It was conducted by all involved with shrewd manipulations, deceit and deception concocted by the best brains of the intelligence trade, in Moscow, Tel Aviv and Cairo.
Moscow made military preparations during Spring 1967, when the Kremlin prepared a plan for surrounding Israel with an armada of nuclear-armed naval forces in the Mediterranean. It included even pre-positioning military matériel on land, and training troops nearby with the expectation of using them physically against Israeli targets. Soviet photo-reconnaissance MiG-25s (the "Foxbats" of the title) actually overflew the Dimona nuclear reactor shortly before hostilities started, in May 1967. The security at Dimona (officially the Negev Nuclear Research Center) was particularly stringent. For straying into Dimona's airspace, the Israelis even shot down one of their own Mirage fighters during the Six-Day War.
Moscow's action in 1967 followed a trend in veiled threats, which Premier Nikolai Bulganin had directed at Israel as well as Great Britain and France during the so-called 1956 "Suez Crisis", warning them to halt their activities against Abdul Nasser's Egypt. A few years later, a similar ploy nearly worked during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, only to be averted by a cool-headed John F Kennedy. Now as tension rose once again in the Middle East, The Kremlin, under Andrei Kosygin tried this ruse again -- this time against the state of Israel.
By 1966 the Soviets had built up their Mediterranean force to an average daily strength of fifteen ships which were making port calls from Egypt to Gibraltar. This initial Soviet deployment in the eastern Mediterranean was to counter the American deployment of SSBNs there. As American ballistic submarines improved in range and accuracy, the Soviets were drawn into blue water operations to hunt and destroy these boats. Naval air cover was necessary for the surface fleets to performs these tasks. All of the USSR's surface units for deploying air power at sea were built in the Black Sea.
The first significant appearance of Soviet sea power in the Mediterranean came in 1967 during the Arab-Israeli conflict. During the Six-Day War (June 1967) the Soviets increased their force in a show of support for the Arab states. That was the first opportunity taken by the Soviets to demonstrate their willingness to influence major events in the area by the use of military power. During that crisis the Soviet Mediterranean Squadron numbered up to 70 units, some of which were in Port Said and Alexandria, to deter Israeli attacks against those ports.
At the same time the USA considered the Mediterranean the most important area from geopolitical and strategic standpoints. US Naval Squadron located there since the war time in the late 40’s was reorganized into the 6th Fleet functioning as a tool for strategic politico-military leverage not only at Arab states opposing US’s allies and Israel in particular but at Socialist allies of the USSR. From 1963 till 1967 the amount of SSBN on patrol and with missiles had been increased in the Mediterranean theater from 2 to 10. The main body of the 6th Fleet included two aircraft-carriers, two cruisers, four frigates, and over ten destroyers.
On April 3, 1967, US nuclear sub NAUTILUS welcomed her sixth Commanding Officer, CDR Norman E. Griggs. During the Spring and Summer of 1967 NAUTILUS supported various Atlantic Fleet ASW exercises. We can imagine they were on standby for the Middle East. An evaluation report of the Romanian General Staff’ Operational department of April 1965 states that the NATO Naval Forces had at their disposal a total of about 1500 warships and auxiliary ships of which 370 main combat ships; 45 naval aviation squadrons with more than 680 assorted aircraft; 8 battalions of marines.
In December of 1967, the USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654), a Polaris missile sub, was clipped by a Soviet sub in the Mediterranean Sea. The Americans knew the Soviet sub was there but could not move their massive boat away fast enough. Crewmen note the collision was "a glancing blow" but said it still left a gash in Marshall's forward starboard ballast tank.
The main NATO naval group, comprising the naval forces of the USA, the Great Britain, France, Italy, Turkey and, Greece, is concentrated in the Mediterranean. The NATO Naval Forces combat unit in the region is the Sixth US Fleet which has 3-4 aircraft carriers with nuclear warheads of types A-3B and A-4B with 300 kt equivalent and 2400 to 1500 km tactical radius. At the same time 3-4 other US nuclear submarines with “Polaris-A2” missiles of 2800 km range patrol in the Mediterranean.
According to official Sovet data of 1970 the Allied NATO Naval Forces in the Mediterranean, includes 260 ships and up to 120 airplanes and helicopters. The Naval Forces combat unit is the 16th Squadron of US nuclear submarines, based in Rota, Spain. In addition, the Sixth US Fleet has about 60 ships, 2 aircraft carriers of 180-200 airplanes, 20 destroyers, 1-2 missile cruisers as well as marine units.
The presence of Soviet nuclear submarines in the area makes our submarine presence, including the Guppies, crucial to US intelligence. The Soviet Navy began operating in the Mediterranean from 1967 on a permanent basis. Also a nuclear-capable anti-submarine carrier, the crew of the USS Randolph included a W Division that was responsible for storing and handling nuclear depth charges for the ship's anti-submarine wing. The ship's Crew Books identify that the ship included a W Division during deployments to the Mediterranean Sea in 1964, 1965 and 1967. The unit was made up of 24 men in 1965 and 30 in 1967. By Sept., it was redeployed to the Mediterranean Sea. During the cruise, the ship's Weapons Department included a Special Weapons "W" Division with 24 men.
Soviet political decisions and military operations diametrically opposed to the USSR's declared principles would never be intentionally, directly, and fully revealed in official documents. They would be intentionally obscured. General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev's disclosed in a speech to the Central Committee that Moscow's warning in mid-May about Israel's supposed offensive intentions, which sparked the final escalation toward war, was passed to Egypt and Syria according to a Politburo resolution and in the expectation that these governments would take appropriate countermeasures.
This refutes previously accepted theories that the Soviet warning allegedly came from a low-level initiative or its results were unintended. The USSR also premeditated diplomatic rupture with Israel in advance of the war, along with the military intervention. The absence or suppression of official records can and should be allowed to excise entire chapters from history.
Persistent claims to the contrary fell when Russian Defense Ministry in October 2006, over the signature of the chief spokesman of the Russian Air Force Col. Aleksandr V. Drobyshevsky unwittingly disclosed a secret operation by mentioning it in a completely different context. During the anniversary of a test pilots' school, Drobyshevsky praises the achievements of a test pilot school's graduates.
In 1967, the military valor and high combat training of Colonel Bezhevets, A[leksandr] S. (now a Hero of the Soviet Union, an honorary test pilot of the USSR, [and] retired Air Force major general), were demonstrated while carrying out combat operations in Egypt, [and] enabled [him] to perform unique reconnaissance flights over the territory of Israel in a MiG-25RB aircraft.
Arguably, the conflict was deliberately engineered by the Soviet Union to create a condition in which Israel's nuclear program could be destroyed. Learning of Israel's progress towards nuclear arms, the Soviets aimed to draw Israel into a confrontation in which their counterstrike would include a joint Egyptian-Soviet bombing of the reactor at Dimona. They had also geared up for a naval landing on Israel's beaches. The USSR provoked that war, sought to use the conflict to eliminate Israel's nuclear capability, and seriously considered direct intervention. Covert para-military activity is always denied and preceeds a shooting war.
"The conventional view is that the Soviet Union triggered the conflict via disinformation on Israeli troop movements, but that it didn't intend for a full-scale war to break out and that it then did its best to defuse the war in cooperation with the United States," Gideon Remez, who co-wrote Foxbats over Dimona, told The Jerusalem Post. But their covert actions tell a different story. Soviet pilots flew the still-experimental, top-secret prototype aircraft later known as the MiG-25 (or "Foxbat" by its NATO reporting name) in highly provocative sorties over Israel's Dimona nuclear facility on May 17 and 26, 1967.
The Soviets direct intervention was put in motion to help Egypt as Israeli forces advanced into the Sinai, before the cease-fire ended hostilities. In November 2007 Putin awarded a posthumous decoration to an American-born Soviet spy who penetrated the Manhattan Project. He revealed that the United States had suppressed the affair entirely.
The Soviets' most advanced fighter plane, the MiG-25 Foxbat flew sorties over Dimona shortly before the Six Day War. This helped bolster the Soviet effort to encourage Israel to launch a war by assuring the nuclear target could be effectively destroyed. Branded an aggressor for its preemption, Israel came under joint Arab-Soviet counterattack.
Soviet nuclear-missile submarines were also said to have been poised off Israel's shore, ready to strike back in case Israel already had a nuclear device and sought to use it. The Soviets' intended central intervention in the war was thwarted. The overwhelming nature of the initial Israeli success, as Israel's preemption, far from weakening its international legitimacy and exposing it to devastating counterattack, proved decisive in determining the conflict.
Because the Soviet Union's plan proved unworkable, its role in stoking the crisis, and its plans to subsequently remake the Middle East to its advantage, have remained overlooked, undervalued or simply unknown to historians assessing the war over the past 40 years. Remez said the work was based on "some documentary evidence, in combination with testimonies of rank-and-file and high-ranking participants."
Among these are quotations from the commander of the Soviets' strategic-bomber pilots, Gen. Vasily Reshetnikov, indicating that he and his colleagues were given maps for a planned mission to target Dimona, and from Soviet Foreign Ministry official Oleg Grinevsky to the effect that the outcome of the war "saved Dimona from annihilation."
Soviet naval officer Yuri Khripunkov details orders his ship's captain gave him on June 5, 1967, to raise a 30-strong "volunteer" detachment for a landing mission in Israel. "The mission for Khripunkov's platoon was to penetrate Haifa Port - the Israeli navy's main base and command headquarters." Khripunkov was told that "similar landing parties were being assembled on board 30-odd Soviet surface vessels in the Mediterranean, for a total of some 1,000 men."
Perhaps surprisingly, declassified documents established that the CIA station chief in Tel Aviv was not exaggerating wildly when he threatened the Israelis on May 25 that "if you attack, the United States will land forces on Egypt's side." There was indeed a longstanding U.S. contingency plan, including a paratroop drop in Sinai, which was briefly dusted off for operational planning precisely on the same day.
A pro-Israeli intervention was, of course, never contemplated by the USSR, unless one counts the putative landing to "rescue ‘our people' in Israel". More importantly, unlike the Soviet-Arab plan, the U.S. contingency plan (which did also include a variant for a pro-Israeli intervention) never approached implementation: it never was considered at the top military or political level, no forces were committed, and no operational orders were issued.
CIA Report Shows U.S. Awareness of Soviet Preparations for Military Intervention
However, a declassified (originally top secret) CIA Intelligence history of the Soviet role in the Six-Day War, composed almost three years after the events, now reveals that U.S. intelligence did have "reports" about other Soviet "preparations for limited intervention": "On June 11 there were several reports of Soviet military preparations--one involving the possible landing of 400 Soviet sailors near Latakia, Syria, and the other involving the possible landing of paratroops in Syria to halt the Israeli advance toward Damascus."
The CIA document--which, overall, attributes to the USSR a moderating and restraining influence on its Arab clients in the 1967 conflict--goes on to minimize the significance of these moves: "These reports reveal the extent of Soviet concern for Syria and its regime, but the amount of support being considered was token only. It is not impossible that these reports were circulated by the Soviets in an attempt to scare the Israelis into stopping their advance into Syria."
There is as yet no evidence that these specific threatened operations were known to Israel or that they were what moved its leadership, and particularly Dayan, to limit the advance into Syria for fear of Soviet intervention. How landing 400 sailors at distant Latakia could achieve this purpose is unclear. There is also no mention of these reports in the recorded deliberations of the White House on the morning of June 10, following the receipt of Kosygin's hotline threat to take "measures, including military." T
hose present in the situation room (including the CIA chief) admitted they had no idea what the Soviets' intentions and capabilities were. At any rate, intentionally spreading such rumors on June 11--the day after Israel accepted and implemented a ceasefire--could have served little purpose for the Soviets, except perhaps vis-à-vis their embittered Arab clients: to credit Soviet action retrospectively for cowing the Israelis.
Israel is believed to have begun full scale production of nuclear weapons following the 1967 Six-Day War, although it may have had bomb parts earlier. A CIA report from early 1967 stated that Israel had the materials to construct a bomb in six to eight weeks and some authors suggest that Israel had two crude bombs ready for use during the war.
Author Seymour Hersh, writing in the Samson Option says Prime Minister Levi Eshkol delayed starting weapons production even after Dimona was finished. The reactor operated and the plutonium collected, but remained unseparated. The first extraction of plutonium probably occurred in late 1965. By 1966, enough plutonium was on hand to develop a weapon in time for the Six-Day War in 1967. Some type of non-nuclear test, perhaps a zero yield or implosion test, occurred on November 2, 1966.
After this time, considerable collaboration between Israel and South Africa developed and continued through the 1970s and 1980s. South Africa became Israel's primary supplier of uranium for Dimona. A Center for Nonproliferation Studies report lists four separate Israel-South Africa “clandestine nuclear deals.” Three concerned yellowcake and one was tritium. Other sources of yellowcake may have included Portugal.
Egypt attempted unsuccessfully to obtain nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union both before and after the Six-Day War. President Nasser received from the Soviet Union a questionable nuclear guarantee instead and declared that Egypt would develop its own nuclear program. His rhetoric of 1965 and 1966 about preventive war and Israeli nuclear weapons coupled with overflights of the Dimona reactor contributed to the tensions that led to war.
The Egyptian Air Force claims to have first overflown Dimona and recognized the existence of a nuclear reactor in 1965. Of the 50 American HAWK antiaircraft missiles in Israeli hands, half ringed Dimona by 1965. Israel considered the Egyptian overflights of May 16, 1967 as possible pre-strike reconnaissance. One source lists such Egyptian overflights, along with United Nations peacekeeper withdrawal and Egyptian troop movements into the Sinai, as one of the three “tripwires” which would drive Israel to war.
There was an Egyptian military plan to attack Dimona at the start of any war but Nasser vetoed it. He believed Israel would have the bomb in 1968. Israel assembled two nuclear bombs and ten days later went to war. Nasser's plan, if he had one, may have been to gain and consolidate territorial gains before Israel had a nuclear option. He was two weeks too late.
The Israelis aggressively pursued an aircraft delivery system from the United States. President Johnson was less emphatic about nonproliferation than President Kennedy-or perhaps had more pressing concerns, such as Vietnam. He had a long history of both Jewish friends and pressing political contributors coupled with some first hand experience of the Holocaust, having toured concentration camps at the end of World War II.
Israel pressed him hard for aircraft (A-4E Skyhawks initially and F-4E Phantoms later) and obtained agreement in 1966 under the condition that the aircraft would not be used to deliver nuclear weapons. The State Department attempted to link the aircraft purchases to continued inspection visits. President Johnson overruled the State Department concerning Dimona inspections. Although denied at the time, America delivered the F-4Es, on September 5, 1969, with nuclear capable hardware intact.
The Nuclear Threshold
The 1967 Six-Day War was a turning point in Israel's nuclear history. In Israel and the Bomb, author Avner Cohen revealed that on the eve of the Six-Day War, in late May 1967, Israeli engineers improvised rudimentary, but operational, nuclear weapons—the first time that Israel assembled nuclear devices. The 1967 war brought about a new political and strategic reality, as well as domestic changes in Israel itself that significantly decreased Israel's nuclear inhibition.
The Samson Option states that Moshe Dayan gave the go-ahead for starting weapon production in early 1968, putting the plutonium separation plant into full operation. Israel began producing three to five bombs a year. The book Critical Mass claims that Israel had two bombs in 1967, and that Prime Minister Eshkol ordered them armed in Israel's first nuclear alert during the Six-Day War. Avner Cohen in his recent book, "Israel and the Bomb," agrees that Israel had a deliverable nuclear capability in the 1967 war. He quotes Munya Mardor, leader of Rafael, the Armament Development Authority, and other unnamed sources, that Israel “cobbled together” two deliverable devices.
Having the bomb meant articulating, even if secretly, a use doctrine. In addition to the “Samson Option” of last resort, other triggers for nuclear use may have included successful Arab penetration of populated areas, destruction of the Israeli Air Force, massive air strikes or chemical/biological strikes on Israeli cities, and Arab use of nuclear weapons.
David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, was obsessed and driven by the vision that a nuclear capability would be the answer to Israel's security predicament. He considered the Arab-Israeli conflict to be deep and enduring, and, consequently, he believed that the resolution of the conflict could come only after the Arabs were compelled to accept the existence of the state of Israel. Until that time, Israel would have to rely on its sword.
Two other men were instrumental in making Ben-Gurion's nuclear vision a reality. The first was Professor Ernst David Bergmann, an organic chemist by training, who was Ben-Gurion's close scientific advisor. In 1952, Bergmann founded the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) as the vehicle through which to realize this nuclear vision. The second was Shimon Peres, then young director-general of the Ministry of Defense, who was the administrator-politician who promoted that vision. As the architect of the "special relations" between Israel and France in the mid-to-late 1950s, Peres was the man behind the French-Israeli nuclear deal under which the nuclear complex in Dimona was built. For all practical purposes, Peres was the chief executive of the project during its initiation stage (a role he filled until he left the Ministry of Defense in 1965).
From early on, Peres recognized that it would be impossible for Israel to fulfill its nuclear dream on its own. He concluded that Israel needed a major foreign nuclear supplier. In 1955, Israel was the second nation in the world to sign an agreement under the Eisenhower administration's "Atoms for Peace" program, but it soon recognized that this program could not be the prime vehicle for Israel through which to build an ambitious nuclear program aimed at military applications. France, on the other hand—which at the time was considering its own military nuclear program—seemed the most logical choice as the project's primary foreign supplier. The nuclear issue was clearly one of the underlying motives behind Peres' efforts to build the France-Israel alliance in the mid-to-late 1950s.
Israeli-French nuclear discussions about a major nuclear deal had been initiated prior to the 1956 Suez campaign—a brief armed conflict in which Israel, with the backing of Britain and France, attacked Egypt in response to the Arab nation's blockading of the Suez Canal and its support of border-area attacks by Arab fighters. But it was that joint military campaign - and in particular the Soviet Union's veiled nuclear threats against both countries during the campaign - that gave impetus to the sensitive talks between Israel and France. Still, it took Peres another year of on-and-off negotiations to produce the entire package, during which time a heated- but quiet - debate took place in Israel itself about the technological, financial, and political feasibility and desirability of the project. Ultimately, however, it was Prime Minister Ben-Gurion's project, and he gave the necessary support to Peres to complete the deal.
Meanwhile, back in Egypt, Salah Nasr headed
Salah Nasr established a separate building for the GIS, with separate divisions for Radio, Computer, Forgery and Dirty tricks. In order to cover high expenses of intelligence work, Nasr established Al Nasr company of export & import to be a GIS secret front financing the apparatus. The company business flourished and eventually was separated from GIS and had an independent management.
However, it is almost certain that the GIS owns many companies in Egypt especially in tourism, aviationa nd construction. The name of GIS director was a secret until 1993 when General Omar Soliman who became the Chief of the GIS in 1993, broke the taboo. The GIS managed to plant Egyptian Agent among Jewishimmigrants. Agent "Raafat el-Haggan" lived under cover for 18 years in Israel without being discovered. He established a network of spies in various fields of the Israeli community.
According to Arab rhetoric,
1967 sure wasn’t the Summer of Love in the
Had it been revealed, OPERATION CYANIDE meant certain political suicide for the Johnson Administration. The veil of absolute secrecy still conceals the betrayal of USS Liberty’s military and intelligence personnel, who were silenced for decades in the name of national security. Only the most valorous acts of courage saved the remaining crew and the ship from disappearing into the Deep with all her secrets including the newly deployed Moon Bounce Antenna.
But they did not die, despite the fact that air support was withdrawn. Furthermore, a
The BBC, History Channel and other media have occasionally covered the tale, including the cover up story, but recent disclosures and revelations have expanded the story and broadened its context. No dramatization has ever been done, because both US and Israeli governments have covered up the truth with the “plausible deniability” that the attack was a case of “mistaken identity.” Now, many influential government and military personnel say it absolutely isn’t so. We have the facts and the story wants to be told so the world knows what happened and what horrible actions nearly ensued.
- The war resulted from a deliberate Soviet-Arab effort to provoke Israel into a preemptive strike;
- A central motive for the Soviet move was to halt and destroy Israel's nuclear development before it could attain operational atomic weapons;
- This Soviet effort was accelerated by a direct message from Israel that despite its official ambiguity, it was bent on acquiring such weapons;
- Soviet nuclear weapons were readied for use against Israel in case it already possessed, and tried to use, any nuclear device;
- The Soviets prepared a marine landing--with air support--on Israel's shores, which was not only planned but actually set in motion, and readied strategic bombers to strike Israeli targets;
- The USSR committed its most advanced, still secret experimental aircraft and top pilots for provocative reconnaissance sorties over Israel's most sensitive installation--its nuclear complex--in possible preparation for the planned attack on this target and/or in order to create such concern in Israel that would ensure its launch of a first strike;
- The planned Soviet intervention was to be unleashed once Israel was drawn into this preemptive attack and was internationally branded as the aggressor, out of calculation that the Soviet input could tip the balance in favor of an Arab counterattack.
Moshe Dayan becomes Israel's Secretary of Defense.June 1 – The Beatles release Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, nicknamed "The Soundtrack of the Summer of Love"; it would be number one on the albums charts throughout the summer of 1967.June 2 – Protests in West Berlin against the arrival of the Shah of Iran turn into fights, during which young Benno Ohnesorg is killed by a police officer. His death results in the founding of the terrorist group Movement 2 June.June 5 – Murderer Richard Speck is sentenced to death in the electric chair for killing eight student nurses in Chicago.June 5 – Six-Day War: Israel occupies the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights after defeating its Arab neighbours.June 6 – East African Community (EAC) established.June 8 – Six-Day War – USS Liberty incident: Israeli fighter jets and Israeli warships fire at the USS Liberty off Gaza, killing 34 and wounding 171.June 10 – Israel and Syria agree to a United Nations-mediated cease-fire.June 10 – The Soviet Union severs diplomatic relations with Israel.
UNINVITED STATES: The Corrosive Tavistock Agenda
© Iona Miller & Charles W. Stone
The world’s most influential thinktank, Tavistock Institute has an occult and clandestine lineage. These mindbenders have inoculated the world with their viral ideas for global domination. What we don’t know DOES hurt us. In 1941 a group of psychiatrists at the Tavistock Clinic saw that the right questions were asked in Parliament in order to secure the means to try new measures. They joined the Directorate of Army Psychiatry and took it over, then turned their psystrat on an unsuspecting public.
They wind you up because they know what makes you tick. Tavistock Clinic studied shellshock (post-traumatic stress) in WWI but switched to developing psychological warfare in 1922. Rather than helping traumatized soldiers, it calculated their breaking points. Tavistock shock doctrine now permeates global life as the Long Crisis. Their social engineers are a Who’s Who: Freud, Jung, Adler, Melanie Klein, Wilfred Bion, Edward Bernays, Eric Trist, A.K. Rice, Aldous Huxley, R.D. Laing and more.
Tavistock sent German-born psychologist, Kurt Lewin, to the MIT in 1945 to establish the
Founder, John Rawlings Rees, claimed: “Public life, politics and industry should all ... be within our sphere of influence…If we are to infiltrate the professional and social activities of other people I think we must imitate the Totalitarians and organize some kind of fifth column activity! We must aim to make it permeate every educational activity in our national life ... We have made a useful attack upon a number of professions. The two easiest of them naturally are the teaching profession and the Church: the two most difficult are law and medicine.”
Former MI6 Intelligence officer John Coleman exposed their covert activities in The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations: Shaping the Moral, Spiritual, Cultural, Political, and Economic Decline of the United States of America: “The enemy is clearly identifiable as the Committee of 300, the Club of Rome, NATO, the Black Nobility, CFR and all of its affiliate organizations, the think tanks, and research institutes controlled by Stanford and … last, but certainly not least, the military establishment,” who script our wars. Coleman includes the Eastern Liberal Establishment "aristocracy," its banks, insurance companies, giant corporations, petroleum cartels, foundations, communications networks, publishing houses, radio and television networks and the movie industry.
OUT OF OUR MINDS
“What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You”
© Iona Miller & Charles W. Stone, 2010
“Men Who Stare At Goats” Meets “Dr. Strangelove”
Opening Scene: With his transplant failing after a desperate trip to
Shrouded in mystery to the very end, Schleicher’s death was “untimely and highly suspicious.” Schleicher believed for years that certain domestic agents had targeted him for unknown personal reasons dating back to the mid-60s and his NSA days. No cause of death was forthcoming, so the truth may never be known.
Mankind Research Unlimited had a burning “Need to Know” about the strangest phenomena that can teach us the most. Research in out-of-body experiences (OOBE), distance healing, and remote viewing (RV) meant MRU personnel were often literally "out of their minds" or at least they were rarely "in" their bodies.
Various intelligence resources supported these spy-entists in their quest to unleash anomalous human potential. MRU was a front for the most advanced mind control technology at that time, including what is now called “Voice to Skull” or V2K microwave transmissions and Directed Energy or DEW weapons. Director, Dr. Carl Schleicher has been called “a real Dr. Strangelove.” Charles Stone became Schleicher’s Deputy Director seven years after MRU was publically exposed in 1980 by Covert Action Bulletin. It revealed occultism in high places, but under the scientific codenames coined by MRU’s mindbenders.
MRU bootstrapped off Soviet studies in energy medicine, hypnotherapy, magnetic healing, acupuncture, radionics or radiesthesia, remote healing and viewing, EVP, and psychophysical control of internal states. Research pathfinders carved broad highways through the mindscape. The cross-disciplinary synergy between physics, biology, psychiatry and religion, was explored and exploited with intent and belief.
MRU collapsed the spectrum of approaches from philosophy of mind and dream research, to neuropsychology, pharmacology, and molecular dynamics, to neural networks, phenomenological accounts, and even the quantum physics of reality. They canvassed the whole paranormal field aiming at a sound scientific foundation for future research and killer apps with lucrative business potential.
Much of this research has become what is known as “suppressed science.” Some of it was shown to be "pseudo-science" but at the time no one knew the difference from the experimental point of view. But when research disappears from public view, it usually means it has gone ‘dark,’ into the clandestine world for further development and military apps.
NATPE 2010, Las Vegas - National Association of Television Program Executives
Celebrating over 40 years of service to the ever-evolving global television industry, NATPE continues to redefine itself and the services it provides to meet the needs of its members. Today’s industry encompasses so much more today than ever before and NATPE has remained flexible in an effort to encourage and support the progress of the industry and all of the platforms it now serves. What has remained constant is NATPE’s commitment to keeping members apprised of the changes occurring daily in the global media environment.
NATPE implements our mission by providing members with education, networking, professional enhancement and technological guidance through year-round activities and events, timely directories. The organization also offers a full compliment of online services to its membership.
In addition the annual NATPE Conference & Exhibition is the only American program market serving the worldwide television community. This affordable three-day market and conference is recognized throughout the world as a key media event. If you buy, sell, develop, finance, advertise, market or license content; implement technology; exploit rights; or leverage media assets, the annual Conference & Exhibition is the best place to be for success today and growth tomorrow.
NATPE does provide valuable information and resources to its membership, which is comprised of companies and individuals involved in or wanting to become involved with the creation, development and distribution of television programming; NATPE does serve as a catalyst for idea sharing, discussion and debate regarding trends and practices in the television industry as it relates to programming; NATPE does provide its members with 24/7 access to accurate databases of global information, worldwide industry news, trends, and creates opportunities for its members to advance themselves and the industry through its annual Conference & Exhibition, regional
What NATPE does:
workshops and seminars, demonstrations, gatherings and other means of overall support.
NATPE does provide valuable information and resources to its membership, which is comprised of companies and individuals involved in or wanting to become involved with the creation, development and distribution of television programming;
NATPE does serve as a catalyst for idea sharing, discussion and debate regarding trends and practices in the television industry as it relates to programming;
NATPE does provide its members with 24/7 access to accurate databases of global information, worldwide industry news, trends, and creates opportunities for its members to advance themselves and the industry through its annual Conference & Exhibition, regional
What NATPE doesn't do:NATPE does not provide referrals to agents, managers, lawyers, producers, distributors or network executives; however, it does make its membership directory available to other members and does have a discount partner program.
NATPE does not present program concepts to development executives; however, it does create opportunities for its members to meet and pitch ideas to development executives during several of the industry events it organizes.
NATPE does not serve as a clearinghouse for program concepts or ideas; however, it does publish a directory of companies and individuals involved in program creation, development and distribution and also provides links to other industry associations, trade publications and other organizations that could be helpful in researching and/or registering program ideas.
NATPE does not lobby in Washington, DC on behalf of its members. However, we do keep our members apprised of FCC rulings, regulations and congressional rule making through our Washington Report provided by Mickey Gardner of the Law Offices of Michael Gardner.